There is evidence showing biological disturbance in Covid Long-Haulers. It wouldn’t be surprising to anyone with Long-COVID (chronic-COVID, etc) the fact that most (if not all) their examinations come fine, which tends to create an important disbelieve by the medical community. In addition, not knowing what is not right makes it harder to find a solution.
Luckily for Long-Haulers, scientists at IncellDx seem to have found blood markers that show biological disturbance in Long Haulers (see paper here). Furthermore, they have developed a Long Hauler Index algorithm. This algorithm when training was capable of predicting with 97% precision who is a severe case of COVID-19, a long hauler and a non-severe-non-long hauler. After, in the testing split, this predictor was 100% precise with a 100% recall.
In summary, the paper has identified the following markers:
*Interleukin-2 is significantly elevated in Long-Covid. This is a type of cytokine signaling molecule that regulates the activity of white blood cells.
*Interleukin-4 is significantly elevated in Long-Covid. This is a cytokine (produced by mast cells) that induces differentiation of naive helper T cells
*CCL3 is significantly elevated in Long-Covid. This is a chemokine involved in the acute inflammatory state. It also recruits and activates polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
*Interleukin-6 is significantly elevated in Long-Covid. This is a type of cytokine (secreted by macrophages) that stimulates the production of neutrophils in the bone marrow.
*Interleukin-10 is significantly elevated in Long-Covid.
*IFNγ is significantly elevated in Long-Covid. This is a type of cytokine produced by NK and NKT cells as immune response.
*VEGF is significantly elevated in Long-Covid. This protein stimulates the formation of blood vessels.
*GM-CSF is significantly decreased in Long-Covid. Cytokine that promotes neutrophil proliferation and maturation.
*CCL4 is significantly decreased in Long-Covid.
In addition, there were 3 extra findings:
There was no evidence of T-cell exhaustion.
Long Haulers, mild and severe cases all show elevated CCL5 (RANTES).
B-cells, CD14+ and CD16+ monocytic subset were significantly elevated.
SARS-CoV-2 ANTIBODY TESTING OPTIONS
Qualitative and quantitative antibody testing can provide information on SARS-CoV-2 immune response in previously diagnosed patients and can help identify individuals who have been exposed to the virus. The LabCorp test has a 100% sensitivity and 99.8% specificity. Below are the 3 x antibody tests they offer comparing the differences:
Serologic tests for SARS-CoV-2 are intended for individuals who may have had COVID-19 symptoms but who were never symptomatic or no longer symptomatic. The tests determine the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, and can help to identify individuals who have been infected with the virus. Antibody testing should not be used as the sole basis to diagnose or exclude SARS-CoV-2 infection.
SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies :
This qualitative assay uses a modi cation of standard ELISA methodology to detect the presence of high a nity antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein.1 While the assay does not di erentiate between antibody types, it preferentially detects IgG antibodies since these are most likely to evolve to become high affinity.1
SARS-CoV-2 Antibody, IgG :
This qualitative assay uses a modi cation of standard ELISA methodology to detect the presence of IgG antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
Antibody Testing at LotusRain
At LotusRain we offer antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19. To schedule your appointment, please contact us HERE.
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Board Certified Classical Homeopath
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